The Roscoe Gun Battle

I had just finished delivering some farm tractor fuel to a customer. The farm was located along an old country road in the Osage River bottoms just north of Roscoe in St. Clair County Missouri. I was making my way back to the highway when I noticed a large stone in the fence row. It is not unusual to see a rock in the fence rows of St. Clair County, but this one appeared to have lettering on it. I was interested in the things most young guys would be interested in, but I also had a keen interest in things historical.

I stopped my truck and walked back to have a look. The message carved in capitals read: “A BATTLE BETWEEN THE YOUNGERS AND DETECTIVES OCCURRED HERE, MAR. 17, 1874. KILLED JOHN YOUNGER, E. B. DANIELS AND CAPT. LULL – CWA 1934”.


For many decades this stone in the fence row alongside an old country road was the only marker of the Pinkerton -Younger gun battle.

I was aware that the James-Younger gang had family connections to the Monegaw Springs and Chalk Level area. As a teenager I had even visited Monegaw Springs and explored the nearby cave.


Local tradition has it that this cave had a secret passage used by the James-Younger Gang to access the Osage River. Trust me, it does not have a secret passage. I explored it several times as a teenager.
Monegaw Springs Cave, a blend of myth and reality, a fun memory along the Sundown Trail.

Back then, I was not aware of the Roscoe Gun battle. Finding that marker years later made me happier than if I had found a twenty dollar bill at the side of the road. I have continued researching the gun battle over the years…


The year was 1874. After the Gads Hill train robbery in January, Frank and Jesse James returned to their home area near Kearney, in Clay County, Missouri. James and John Younger were miles away in the Monegaw-Roscoe vicinity in St. Clair County, Missouri area by March. A Pinkerton detective, operating covertly as a farmhand seeking employment, was set upon and killed on a Jackson County road by parties unknown. Allen Pinkerton blamed Frank and Jesse James, and the Pinkerton Agency was desperate to capture or kill members of the James-Younger gang. Two men were assigned to pursue the Younger brothers: Louis J. Lull, a former Chicago police Captain turned Pinkerton detective; and another Pinkerton detective, James Wright.

After several weeks the detectives were directed to refocus on St. Clair County and the Monegaw Springs area. Arriving in Osceola, the St. Clair County seat, the detectives took rooms at the Commercial Hotel and began to visit with locals. The detectives pretended to be cattle buyers. They enlisted the guide services of 23-year-old Ed Daniels, a part time deputy sheriff. Captain Lull used an alias of “W. J. Allen.” Wright was a former Confederate soldier and decided to use his real name in case he ran into an old acquaintance.

Just thirteen years before, Osceola had been ravished, looted, and burned to the ground by the Kansas Jay Hawker Federalist force led by General Jim Lane. The townspeople were polite, but strangers in their midst were met with silence and suspicion. After a few days the detectives and their guide traveled twelve miles southwest of Osceola to Roscoe and took rooms in the Roscoe House Hotel. The owner of the hotel was Oliver Burch. Local historians believe that Burch rode with Quantrill during the war.

On the evening of March 16, 26-year-old James Younger and 23-year-old John Younger attended a dance at the Monegaw Springs hotel, a large log and frame three-story building. They danced, drank, and had a good time. After the dance, the brothers rode about three miles southeast to the Negro Settlement and stayed overnight with long time family friends John and Hannah McFerrin. The McFerrins were a much respected family at the settlement and were long time friends of the Younger family. Aunt Hannah, as she was affectionately called, was known for the Persimmon beer she made. The boys slept late and after visiting with the McFerrins, proceeded on down the road in a southeasterly direction to the Theodrick Snuffer home. They tied their horses out of sight behind the chicken house and loosened the cinches. Theodrick Snufffer was a close friend to the boys grandfather, Charles Younger, who lived in the Chalk Level area. To avoid capture, the Younger brothers were following a regimen of visiting family and friends briefly and moving on.


Meanwhile, back at Roscoe, Lull, Wright, and Daniels left the hotel just after noon. The trio crossed the Osage River on the ferry and proceeded north on the Chalk Level road. After a short distance they turned east on a narrow road, passed the Benton Green schoolhouse, and headed for the Theodrick Snuffer farm. It is believed they had a tip from an undisclosed source. Lull, using his alias of Allen the cattle buyer, would look the place over.

Inquiring at the hotel, Lull learned that a Widow Sims might have some cattle for sale. He also learned she lived on down the road north of Snuffers. Nearing the Snuffer farm, Wright decided to drop behind because he feared that he might be recognized. After all, Snuffer’s son had fought on the Confederate side too.

The Younger brothers were just sitting down to late dinner with the Snuffers when they heard the sound of horses approaching. Jim and John climbed a ladder into the attic and peered out at the riders through a crack between the logs. Wright rode on past the house and on into a wooded patch up the road. From astride his horse Lull hailed the house.

Snuffer opened the door cautiously and stepped outside. Lull dismounted and asked, “Sir can you direct me to the Sims place?”

Snuffer asked, “Do you mean Col. Sims over by Monegaw Springs?”

“We were told that a Mrs. Sims had some stock for sale and that is the place we would like to find,” Lull replied.

As John and Jim watched the two men below they noted that both men were well-armed. Lull just did not look like he belonged to the area. They also noticed that Daniels was visibly nervous.

Snuffer gave the riders directions to Widow Sims farm and returned to the house as Lull remounted his horse. It was a few minutes past two o’clock in the afternoon. Lull and Daniels rode off at a leisurely gait. Jim and John returned from the attic.

Jim asked, “What do you make of that, Theodrick?”

“I dunno, they didn’t go the direction that I gave them,” Snuffer replied.

The riders had joined Wright and turned left onto a wagon road and proceeded in a northwest direction. The road taken would go by the McFerrin home and come out near the forks of the Monegaw and Chalk Level roads. The Sims’ farm was in the opposite direction almost a mile straight north of Snuffers.

The Younger brothers were at once very suspicious of the strangers.

“Jim, let’s go see who they are,” John said.

Jim the older of the two, said, “No, let them go on. There is no use in asking for trouble.” John kept insisting that the strangers should be checked out. Jim gave in. They went to their concealed horses, jerked the cinches tight, mounted up, and left in fast pursuit of the detectives. About a quarter of a mile from the McFerrin house the two detectives and their guide rode through a grove of smaller trees. Hearing hoof beats they turned to find the Youngers coming fast upon them.

John Younger was carrying a double barrel shotgun. In addition to the cocked shotgun, both men carried several pistols each. Wright, riding a considerable distance in front, could have turned left or right into the timber and flanked the Youngers using his two double action pistols to cover them in a crossfire if need be. Instead he put the spurs to his horse and ran. Jim Younger considered that as confirmation that he was a lawman and fired at the fleeing Wright. Even though he had a considerable lead, the pistol bullet took Wright’s hat off and only hurried the thoroughly scared detective along.

Lull and Daniels remained steady under the threatening muzzle of John’s shotgun. The Youngers ordered Lull and Daniels to drop their pistols on the ground and they complied. Jim dismounted and picked up the guns. Pinkerton’s detectives carried English-made Tranter revolvers. The guns are odd-looking but smooth-working double action guns. Lull carried two of these pistols on his belt. The Tranters were a dead giveaway that they were Pinkerton men. Jim commented, “John, these are fine guns. It is sure nice of these boys to make us a present of them.”


The English made Tranter revolver was preferred by Allen Pinkerton and most of his detectives carried Tranters.
Side note: This image is on a mouse pad available for purchase here: – Tranter Revolver Mouse Pad

“Where are you fellas from?” asked Jim.

“We are from Osceola,” Lull answered.

“What are you doing here?”

“Just rambling around.”

“Are you sure you are not detectives looking for someone? I believe I have seen you over at the Springs,” John said.

“No,” said Daniels. “My name is E. B. Daniels and I can prove who I am and where I am from.”

“Then why in the hell are you carrying all these side arms?” asked John.

“Good God,” pleaded Daniels. “Doesn’t every man traveling through the country carry guns, and don’t I have a right to carry a gun as anyone?”

“That is enough of that,” answered John. “Let’s not have any of that smart talk.” John raised the shotgun in a threatening manner. Then something distracted John, possibly his horse, and he slightly lowered the shotgun.

Lull took advantage of the distraction. He reached for a hidden 32 caliber Smith and Wesson revolver and shot John in the throat.

Smith and Wesson

This Smith and Wesson, Old Model two is the type of pistol Lull used to shoot John Younger. This is the six inch barrel version. Lull’s hidden gun probably was a four inch barrel model.

As Lull’s startled horse started to run, John fired the shotgun and hit Lull in the left shoulder and arm. Lull tried to change rein hands to control his horse as Jim also fired at him but missed. Jim then turned his weapon on Daniels and fired. Daniels fell from the saddle with a mortal wound in the throat, dying almost as soon as he hit the ground. Lull rode through some nearby trees, still trying to control his horse. His horse ran under a low branch and Lull was knocked from the saddle. Though wounded, John managed to stay in his saddle and follow Lull. John approached the fallen Lull and shot twice at him. One round missed and the second went through the left side of Lull’s chest. John turned his horse back towards Jim who was still back where the battle started. But John fell from the horse before he reached Jim and expired. As he fell he went over a hog pen fence just across the road from the McFerrin cabin.

The gunshots and battle commotion attracted the attention of neighbors including George “Speed” McDonald as he worked in his yard at the Negro Settlement a short distance away. Fifteen-year-old Ol Davis was cutting sprouts from a fence row nearby. He saw the last part of the battle. Jim ran to his fallen brother and found that he was dead. He quickly removed John’s pistols, watch, and other personal effects.

Hearing a noise, Jim looked up and saw that Speed McDonald had came to the scene. Jim threw a pistol to McDonald telling him to keep it. He asked McDonald to catch a horse, ride over to Snuffers and tell them what happened, and then return and guard John’s body. Jim then caught John’s horse and raced up the Chalk Level road to try and catch Wright. Not finding Wright, he returned to the Snuffers to ask them to take care of John’s body. Jim mounted his horse and headed south to a place in Arkansas where he knew his brothers Cole and Bob would eventually return to.

Ol Davis ran home and told his father John Davis that he had seen a wounded man fall from a horse. Davis ran to the site of the first gunshots and discovered the bodies of Ed Daniels and John Younger about one hundred feet apart. Walking on down the roadway, he saw Lull. Lull had crawled across the road and managed to pull himself up to a sitting position against a tree. Walking up to Lull, Davis said, “It looks like you have had some trouble.”

Lull replied, “I hope I have fallen into good hands, Sir”

“I can assure you that I will not harm a hair on your head,” Davis replied.

Others arrived on the scene and assisted Davis in tending to Lull the best he could. They carried him to the McFerrin’s porch where Hannah McFerrin fixed a pallet for him. After his wounds were seared, he was carried into the house and placed on a bed, in the same room with John Younger’s body. When it was determined that Lull could be moved he was loaded into a spring wagon and taken to Roscoe. He was placed in a room at the hotel and medical doctors were sent for. A rider was dispatched to Osceola to alert the sheriff. Lull was first attended by local doctors A. C. Marquis and L. Lewis. Later a prominent Osceola surgeon, Dr. D. C. McNeill, was called in to attend Lull. Daniels’ body was taken to Roscoe and then removed on to Osceola.

Wright? During his flight up the Chalk road he worried that being without a hat would flag him for the Youngers. He came upon a farmer Thomas Rosbrough and his son splitting wood near the road. He asked if Rosbrough would sell his hat. The farmer said he would for a dollar. Wright bought the hat and kept running. He hid out for a day or so and then went into Osceola. He reported to the sheriff and then left town. Wright disappeared and was not seen again. One of several mysteries that occurred after the gun battle.

John Younger’s body was kept at the McFerrin cabin that night. An armed guard sat with the body. During the evening a young women appeared on the scene. She had a pistol belt around her waist. She paced back and forth in the room most of the night without saying a word to the guard. At daybreak she left, riding north over the Chalk road. Local belief is that she was Henrietta Younger, a sister to John and the brothers. The Snuffers were afraid that John Younger’s body might be stolen by strangers or desecrated by friends of the popular Daniels. At daybreak the body was buried in a shallow grave near the Snuffers home.

That night Speed McDonald and Snuffer moved the body under cover of darkness. They took it by wagon to the Yeater Cemetery which was on the south side of the Chalk Level to Osceola road. Members of the Negro Settlement took turns guarding the grave for over two weeks. Even Widow Sims took a turn standing guard. John Younger’s grave has lain undisturbed for well over a century.

When he was alive, Ed Daniels was well liked and had many friends. Daniels’ body was taken to Osceola the same day he died. A funeral was held and he was buried on the highest spot in the Osceola cemetery.

On March 18, a coroner’s jury was called. After hearing witnesses the verdict was reached. The verdict read: “We, the jury, find that John Younger came to his death by a pistol shot, supposed to be in the hands of W. J. Allen (Capt. Lull). We, the, jury also find that Edwin B. Daniels came to his death by pistol shot, supposed to been fired by the hand of James Younger.” Signed, A. Ray, foreman of the Jury.

Twenty-three days after the shoot out, it is reported Lull died. The newspapers stated that his body was placed in a coffin and hauled by wagon to the railroad depot in Clinton, Missouri. But did he die? There are those that believed the recuperating Lull was in danger and the only way to get him out of the area with out harm was to fake his death. That perhaps his wife and Pinkerton friends spirited him in a coffin to a Chicago-bound train. The shifty Allen Pinkerton would have not hesitated to make such a move. Historians cite an overheard discussion between Dr. McNeill and a lawyer friend named Frank Nesbit. The very reluctant and ethical Dr. McNeill had sought his lawyer friend’s council about falsifying Lulls death. There we have yet, another mystery in the real life story of the James-Younger gang…


About twenty years ago, I asked the Pinkerton Security Service to let me have access to the company archives on Detective Lull. I contacted them by telephone and by letter. My request was politely stonewalled…

Before we leave the story of the Roscoe Gun Battle, I’d like to take a minute to explain a couple of things. In the narrative, the word dinner was used for the noon meal. Back then and even in my youth, in the rural areas the day’s meals were referred to as breakfast, dinner and supper. Also, the location of the Monegaw Springs cave was purposely not disclosed. Exploring caves is dangerous. It was dangerous when my friends and I did it and I do not recommend unsupervised exploration.

And so this ends the story of the Roscoe Gun Battle, and we touch history again along the Sundown Trail.


Roscoe Gun Battle

In recent times this marker was placed on Highway E (formerly the Chalk Road) at the intersection of the old Monegaw Springs road and the gravel road on which the fight occurred. This junction was called the forks in the old days.


Suggested follow up reading:

The Roscoe Gun Battle
By Wilbur A. Zink
Democrat Publishing Inc.
(may be out of print)

A definite work by a local
historian. Good original
pictures. Booklet form.


The Burning of Osceola Missouri
Written and compiled by
Richard F. Sunderwirth

The author’s own research, plus
family histories and information
passed down through the years.
Three hundred seventy five pages
of good reading.

Available from: Richard F. Sunderwirth
P. O. Box 543
Osceola, Missouri 64776


The Younger Brothers
By A. C. Appler
Published by Frederick Fell Inc.
(may be out of print)

Appler was the publisher of the
Osceola newspaper when the gun battle
happened in 1874. Critics fault him for
being too close to the Youngers and event
dates are a bit foggy. But, we must
remember that Appler was living at the time these events happened.


Historical Information for this blog gathered from the above books and these sources:

  • St. Clair County Historical Society
  • The Outlaw Youngers by Marty Brent
  • St. Clair County Courier, Remnants of the Past
  • The Pinkertons by James D. Horan
  • Desperate Men by James D. Horan


Categories: American History, History, Missouri | Tags: , , , , , | 37 Comments

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37 thoughts on “The Roscoe Gun Battle

  1. Enjoyed it. Very well done!

  2. vic nickel

    if you would research the book (it is online) caves of Missouri by harlen bretz you will find the cave sw of monegaw in the bluff over the osage river is the monegaw cave where chief monegaw died . and nw of monegaw on the little monegaw creek (the cave picture you show ) is the Cleveland cave that walt Cleveland commercialize from about 1900 to about the 1930s and I own it .

    • Thank you for your comment. The old spit and whittlers who would talk about the cave called it the Monegaw Cave, and they called the other cave at Younger Lookout Bluff the Younger Cave. It’s been over 50 years since I have been in there. Thanks for the info.

    • jeannie

      I’ve been in that cave a lot with friends back in the 1990s. There’s a very small uncomfortable tunnel in there that I’m 95% positive does lead to the bluff. I crawled it longer than I should have. Its one in which some places are so small that if one over panicked they could become hopelessly stuck.

      • jeannie

        Its a neat cave with a lot of neat rooms and areas. Some of which are intimidating to reach. I’m older now and get chills thinking of how stupid we had to be to get ourselves in some of those places. I hate to be a party pooper but I hope people stay out of there, something could go wrong.

      • jeannie

        My favorite area inside was always the two cliffs running along bothe sides the underground creek(for lack of better definition..). I’ve seen it when the water was up and when it was very low also.

  3. Jemison Beshears

    Great story……thanks for remembering me. Jemison

  4. Thank you for your comment. I am assuming you are the person with the Tranter mousepad?

  5. Travis H.

    Love hearing these old stories. I have visited Monegaw many times and have also been to the Cleveland Cave as a kid. Thank you for keeping history current.

  6. Connie park

    Great story, I was raised on that farm where the marker sits, my parents Earl and Rowena Park owns it. We got a lot of lookers and I guess it still does, thank for sharing your story. Connie Park willis

    • Thanks for checking in. It is good that the spot was marked for those of us that came after. I have probably met your folks. Years ago I did business with and knew about all the farm families along both sides of the river.

    • jim Wymore

      Hello there i also live at that farm my grandparents sam and evelyn west so if u would please let me know i would like to chat with u

  7. Craig

    Kearney is in Clay county
    Otherwise very well done

  8. Aaron C Roberts

    I have been as far in Monegaw cave as far as I could crawl on my belly about 40 times, there is a spot that goes underwater we as kids could never explore. I wouldnt recomend it divers gear cant get through.

    • Thanks for your comments. Caves seem to have a mysterious attraction to youngsters and adults alike.

    • jeannie

      I bet that’s the same tunnel I crawled for what seemed like at least an hour. Looming back that was really stupid…..yixe!

  9. Shirley Saddler Crayton

    Wilbur A. Zink’s book is in the Appleton City Library and possibly a copy is in the Appleton City Landmarks Museum. Also daughter Kay Crayton has a long out-of-print book The Younger’s Fight For Freedom by W. C. Bronaugh. She loves this subject and can be found on facebook. Wilbur has been deceased for five years. Shirley Saddler Crayton.

    • I think I may have met Mr. Zink many years ago. His book was one of the first books I used as I researched the site of the gun battle.

  10. Have you seen the plaque in the fence row on the gravel road? The Daughter’s of the Confederacy put it up…. I too have been in the cave at Monegaw….. & seen the cliff where it’s rumored Jesse jumped his horse into the river below…’s a rough area now, meth cooker’s out in the rural area’s….

    • I never made it to the cave on the river. The water was up each time I tried to get there. I visited the Cleveland cave several times. Thanks for checking in.

  11. Jo Mohr

    I knew Wilbur Zink and I am sure he would thank you for retelling this story.

  12. Troy Schwalm

    I’ve got to admit I’m a little ashamed of myself for knowing nothing about this site. I spent the first 18 years of my life in this area and made deliveries and service calls with my dad along all the same roads you mentioned in the area. For someone who gets sucked into all things Civil War or early American history, this was a great read. Thanks for the research and new spot to seek out next time I take the back way into El Dorado.
    T. Schwalm, Kansas City, MO

  13. jim Wymore

    As i child my grandmother live in the house where the first stone marker in the fence my step grand father took me to that cave also he had a sawmill west of the house we found a pistol under a big rock

  14. Susan Miller

    If my family history is correct, I believe that my husband’s 4 times great grandparents are John and Hannah McFerrin of the “Negro Settlement”. I have the book “Jesse James and the first Missouri Train Robbery” by Ronald H. Beights. I would really like to know of the exact location of the settlement if at all possible. But, I don’t think that area is very large, is it?

    • Susan: Thanks for your comments. There were a few black families living in the area where the gun battle occurred. I think that area is the “Negro Settlement ” Mr. Zink was referring to. They were located near the stone markers along E hwy as pictured in my blog story. Thanks again. Best wishes from The Sundown Trail, -Walt Ryan

    • Merrill Drake Jr.

      Hannah’s sister was Suze, a slave of Henry Washington Younger who after the war stayed with Bursheba and her family. She later took the name of Susan Younger. She was very close to the family and helped with the rearing of the children. I have her info in my family’s papers. I am the third great grandchild of Mary Fristoe Talley, Bursheba’s sister. I am first cousin’s 3× removed to the Younger siblings.

  15. Leonard Ketterman

    I lived in El Dorado Springs for over 50 years and was taken out and shown this site in the late 90’s by an elderly gentleman that grew up in that area. He said the African American cabins were across the road from the marker and farmhouse of the gun battle, on the south side of the road, and then eastward along the road in the field. He also showed me what he said was an African American graveyard east of Roscoe on 82 highway, on the south side of the road, just before you get to the river. I had seen it my whole life and always thought it was a foundation to a building. Google the coordinates 37.987942, -93.737445 satellite view, zoom in and you can see it. I cannot find any information on this graveyard. We started over to look at the cemetery and didn’t even go 15 yards and were covered by seed ticks! So I did not get to see inside the 3 to 4 foot wall at any of the markers. He also took me to the Yeater Cemetery and showed me John Younger’s grave. He said it does not face the traditional east, he said it was placed at an angle by his mother, (I believe as a marker unto itself?) and you can see the depression in the ground to indicate that. That was one of those days you wished you had a recording of all that was said.

  16. Claudine Lollar Pope

    Love this story of history.

  17. Jay M.

    Does anybody know if Vic still owns the Cleveland cave? Or, who owns it now?

  18. Merrill Drake Jr.

    This is one of the most accurate stories I have read on this particular incident, that happened to my first cousin’s, their aunt was my 3× great grandmother.

  19. Mike Martlet

    Very interesting and well researched story. However the 1853 Model Double Trigger Self Cocking Percussion Revolver shown may be the most famous and most common of the Tranter Revolvers encountered in the United States, due to them being supplied in moderately large numbers to the Confederacy, but by 1858 it had been superceded by a conventional double action with hammer spur design; the Tranter 2nd Model Percussion Revolver. Now whilst the percussion ‘cap & ball’ revolvers would continue to be made by Tranter into the 1870s, Tranter first started producing large calibre rimfire revolvers in 1863, the Roll in

  20. Mike Martlet

    Very interesting and well researched story. However the 1853 Model Double Trigger Self Cocking Percussion Revolver shown may be the most famous and most common of the Tranter Revolvers encountered in the United States, due to them being supplied in moderately large numbers to the Confederacy, but by 1858 it had been superceded by a conventional double action with hammer spur design; the Tranter 2nd Model Percussion Revolver. Now whilst the percussion ‘cap & ball’ revolvers would continue to be made by Tranter into the 1870s, Tranter first started producing large calibre rimfire revolvers in 1863, the Rolin White patent not being recognised outside the US; and certainly the Tranter revolvers used by the British Army and Canadian Mounted Police were the 1868 .45 Centrefire Cartridge Revolvers not percussion revolvers by the late 1860s. So by 1874 wouldn’t it be more likely that it would be Tranter conventional double action cartridge revolvers that the Pinkerton Agents carried rather than the double trigger percussion design of twenty years before?

  21. Daniel E Speir

    Is the 1934 CWA marker still there? If so, on what road? Very interesting article!

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